Opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emission from paddy rice fields in Indonesia    

H L Susilawati and P Setyanto
Published under license by IOP Publishing Ltd
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 200, conference 1

Abstract
Human activities including modern agriculture have increased the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) since the industrial age. The agricultural sector is a source for three primary GHG emissions: methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Numerous management practices can potentially mitigate GHG emissions from rice fields. Before implementing the practices, it is critical to evaluate its impact on GHG emissions and rice production. The aim of this study is to explore the management practices from paddy fields in Indonesia as mitigation of GHG emission without any yield loss. There were some tradeoffs between CH4 and N2O emissions. Continuous flooding triggered largely CH4 emissions and reduced N2O emissions. Organic fertilizer tended to decrease N2O emissions. Nevertheless, inorganic fertilizer e.g. urea application led to an increase of N2O emissions. Promising mitigation options of GHG emission from rice cultivation are the application of water management, a nitrification inhibitor, iron supplement, rice cultivars selection, nutrient (organic-inorganic) management, cultivation method. The effectiveness of the GHG mitigation options varied while acceptability of mitigation options will depend on the extent to which sustainable production will be achieved or maintained.

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Carbon footprint, greenhouse gas emission, recycle and reuse energy research