The application of Refuse Derived Fuel (FDR) from commercial solid wastes to reduce CO2 emissions in the cement industry: a preliminary study

G A Kristanto* and E Rachmansyah
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
*Corresponding author:

Abstract. One of the issues faced by several cities in Indonesia is the management of their increasing generation of solid wastes. One of the largest waste generators include the commercial area, such as malls, restaurants, office buildings, motels, and others, which need to manage their wastes via more sustainable routes such as the application of these wastes as refuse derived fuel to mitigate the climate change causing by fossil fuel. This study aims to analyse the potential use of wastes generated from commercial areas such as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in the cement industry for reducing CO2 emissions. Five variants of RDFs were developed on the basis of commercial solid waste compositions. Results revealed that RDF variation 3 comprising 20% paper and 80% plastics exhibits the highest energy of 6272 kcal/kg. As preliminary study, cement industry Y is investigated as an example. During the simulation of the clinker production, RDF variation 3 is combined with petroleum coke, coal, fuel oil, or natural gas. Compared to other fuels, the combination of petroleum coke and RDF variation 3 exhibits the best CO2 reduction of 2,155.3 106 Kt CO2/ year, with the total annual clinker production of 12.64 million tons. These findings should aid policy and decision makers of waste management service provision and industry to design financially viable management systems based on resource recovery options.